# Learning Accounting through an example

A poor unemployed person (we shall call him Oberoi) thought of making his livelihood by selling vegetables going around houses in a locality. He could only garner a small amount say Rs. 200/- with which he could start the business.

In a very simple sense, business implies something that is carried on with a motive to earn profit/income. Profit motive is inherent in business. Not that every business generates profits, but the motive behind every act/transaction in a business would be making profit.

# • Capital

The amounts and other resources with which a business is started or carried on is called Capital.
• ## Owned Capital

The amounts and other resources employed in the business which belong to the owner/owners of the business are together called owned capital.
• ## Loaned Capital

The amounts and other resources employed in business which are borrowed by the owner/owners of the business from outside persons or organisations are together called loaned capital.

## Oberoi's daily routine

He used to go to the wholesale market early in the morning to buy fresh vegetables which are generally available during that time. He bought vegetables from wholesale vendors. He then roamed around a locality selling the vegetables to various households. To make a profit he sold the vegetables at a price arrived at by adding a certain amount over his purchase price.

# • Profit and Loss

Profit = Selling price — Cost price and
Loss = Cost price — Selling price

Profit is a numerical figure. It can either be positive (when there is a profit), negative (when there is a loss) or zero when there is neither profit nor loss. A loss is also expressed as a negative profit.

In a similar way, loss is also a numerical figure. It can either be positive (when there is a loss), negative (when there is a profit) or zero when there is neither profit nor loss. A profit can also be as a negative loss, but is seldom done.

## At the beginning and during the course of Day One

Oberoi, went to the wholesale market, bought vegetables with the Rs. 200 (his capital) and then set out on his trip around the locality selling vegetables. Since the Rs. 200 he invested enabled him to buy a small quantity of vegetables, he could remember the prices at which he bought the various varieties. He was selling his stock by adding certain amount over the cost at which he purchased them.

# • Price and Value

 Value = Price × Quantity ⇒ Price = Value ÷ Quantity ⇒ Value of a unit quantity is the price. Eg: The values of 5 kg goods is Rs. 80 ⇒ The price of goods is Rs. 16/kg

## End of day One

By evening, Oberoi, sold all the vegetables he purchased in the morning. He counted the cash with him at the end of the day. It was Rs. 280. Where did the extra Rs. 80 (280 − 200) come from? It is on account of the profit he made by selling vegetables.

## Beginning of day two

What is the capital Oberoi has? Since he has Rs. 280 at the end of day one, he can use all that for purchasing vegetables on day two. Therefore his capital is Rs. 280.

## What happened to his capital? Why? How?

His capital has increased from day one to day two by Rs. 80. The reason for this increase is the profit he made on day one.

From this we learn one of the fundamental understandings in accounting/business.

# • Profit increases Capital

 As we make profits our capital increases.

## During the course of Day Two

Oberoi, went to the wholesale market, bought vegetables with the Rs. 280 (his capital for day two) and then set out on his trip around the locality selling vegetables. Even on day two he was selling his stock by adding certain amount over the cost at which he purchased them.

Towards the end of the day he noticed that there was certain stock left over which if he is unable to sell would get spoilt and he would get nothing out of it. Therefore he sold them by reducing the price. This price at which he sold the vegetables was far less than the price at which he bought them.

## End of day Two

Oberoi, counted the cash with him at the end of the day. It was Rs. 260. Why a shortage, what happened to his Rs. 280/-. The shortage of Rs. 20/- (280 - 260) is on account of the loss he incurred in selling the vegetables.

## Beginning of day three

What is the capital Oberoi has? Since he has Rs. 260 at the end of day two, he can use all that for purchasing vegetables on day three. Therefore his capital is Rs. 260.

## What happened to his capital? Why? How?

His capital has decreased from day two to day three. The reason for this decrease is the loss he incurred on day two.

From this we learn one another fundamental understanding in accounting/business.

# • Losses decrease Capital

As we incur losses our capital decreases.
 Author Credit : The Edifier ... Continued Page 2