Balance Sheet - the information it provides
A Balance sheet is a position statement and it gives the information relating to the assets and liabilities of an organisation.
A typical balance sheet would look something like this.
• What does it contain
In accounting point of view, the Balance Sheet is a statement of Real, Personal and Special Nominal account balances after closing the nominal accounts. These are balances that are carried forward to the subsequent accounting period.
» Special Nominal Accounts
Special Nominal accounts are nominal accounts whose balances are carried over from one accounting period to another. This is a term we use for understanding purposes only.
• The information it provides
The information that we can deduce from a balance sheet made out as above is limited. It gives us an idea of the various assets and liabilities relating to the organisation as on the date of the balance sheet.
Marshalling of Assets and Liabilities - for greater information
To give a better idea/understanding/information, the Balance Sheet items are arranged in a specific order.
• Marshalling of Assets and Liabilities
The process of arranging the balance sheet items (assets and liabilities) in a specific order is what we call "Marshalling of Assets and Liabilities". There are two orders followed in Marshalling of Assets and Liabilities (a) Order of Liquidity and (b) Order of Permanence
» Order of Liquidity
The most liquid asset (cash) is placed first and the least liquid asset (goodwill) is placed last. In case of liabilities the liability that has to be paid out at the earliest (bank overdraft) is placed first and the liability that has got the highest life time (capital) is placed last.
» Assets - Liquidity
Liquidity is the characteristic of an asset to get converted to cash. The faster an asset can be converted into cash, the more liquid it is.
Of all the assets we generally come across in balance sheets, We can consider
» Liabilities - Payout
Of all the liabilities we generally come across in the Balance Sheet, we consider
• Order of Permanence
This order is the reverse of the Order of Liquidity.
The asset with the highest permanence (least liquid asset), Goodwill is placed first and the least permanence (highest liquid asset), Cash is placed last.
In case of liabilities the liability that has the highest life time (capital) is placed first and the liability that has to be paid out at the earliest (bank overdraft) is placed last.
• Arranging Assets and Liabilities as per Statutory Requirements
Many a times organisations are required to present the financial statements in specified forms to meet statutory obligations. Presenting the Profit/Loss a/c and Balance Sheet in specified formats to the Registrar of Companies, to meet the obligations under the Companies Act; to the Income Tax Authorities to meet the obligations under the Income Tax Act are some such examples.
Normally we see the order of permanence being followed in these statements.
» Balance Sheet
The Indian Companies Act, 1956, requires the companies registered under it to submit their Balance Sheet in a Horizontal Format or in a Vertical Format as given in Schedule VI Part I of the Act.
Does Marshalling provide additional information?
Liquidity being one of the important factors for decision making in relation to assets and liabilities, such an arrangement would be useful without doubt.
However, this information in itself would not be sufficient for all types of analysis that can be made based on the data that the balance sheet provides.
There are statutory formats for presenting information, which may provide additional information.
Statutory Horizontal Form of Balance Sheet
Indian Companies Act, 1956. Schedule VI PART I
|(1)||Claims against the company not acknowledged as debts.|
|(2)||Uncalled liability on shares partly paid.|
|(3)||Arrears of fixed cumulative dividends.
The period for which the dividends are in arrear or if there is more than one class of shares, the dividends on each such class are in arrear, shall be stated.
|(4)||Estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital account and not provided for.
The amount shall be stated before deduction of income-tax, except that in the case of tax-free dividends the amount shall be shown free of income-tax and the fact that it is so shown shall be stated.
|(5)||Other money for which the company is contingently liable.
The amount of any guarantees given by the company on behalf of directors or other officers of the company shall be stated and where practicable, the general nature and amount of each such contingent liability, if material, shall also be specified.
L » Instructions in accordance with which liabilities should be made out Show/Hide
|(a)||Terms of redemption or conversion (if any) of any redeemable preference capital to be stated together with earliest date of redemption or conversion|
|(b)||Particulars of any option on unissued share capital to be specified.|
|(c)||Particulars of the different classes of preference shares to be given|
|(d)||Specify the source from which bonus shares are issued, e.g., capitalisation of profits or Reserves or from Share Premium Account.|
|(e)||Where the managing agent or secretaries and treasurers are a firm, by the partners thereof, and where the managing agent or secretaries and treasurers are a private company by the directors or members of that company.]|
|(f)||Any capital profit on reissue of forfeited shares should be transferred to Capital Reserve|
|(g)||Additions and deductions since last balance sheet to be shown under each of the specified heads.|
|(h)||The word "fund" in relation to any "Reserve" should be used only where such Reserve is specifically represented by earmarked investments.|
|(i)||Loans from Directors, Manager should be shown separately.|
|(j)||Interest accrued and due on Secured Loans should be included under the appropriate sub-heads under the head 'SECURED LOANS". The nature of the security to be specified in each case.|
|(k)||Where loans have been guaranteed by managers and/or directors, a mention thereof shall also be made and also the aggregate amount of such loans under each head.|
|(l)||Terms of redemption or conversion (if any) of debentures issued to be stated together with earliest date of redemption or conversion.|
|(m)||Loans from Directors, managers should be shown separately.-|
|(n)||Interest accrued ant due on Unsecured Loans should be included under the appropriate sub-heads under the head "UNSECURED LOANS"|
|(o)||Where loans have been guaranteed by managers and/or directors, a mention thereof shall also be made and also the aggregate amount of such loans under each head.|
|(p)||The name(s) of the small scale industrial undertaking(s) to whom the Company owe a sum exceeding Rs. 1 lakh which is outstanding for more than 30 days, are to be disclosed.|
A » Instructions in accordance with which assets should be made out Show/Hide
» Fixed Assets
|(a)||Distinguishing as far as possible between expenditure upon (a) goodwill, (b) land, (c), buildings, (d) leaseholds, (e) railway sidings, (f) plant and machinery, (g) furniture and fittings, (h) development of property, (i) patents, trade marks and designs, (j) livestock, and (k) vehicles, etc|
|(b)||Under each head the original cost, and the additions thereto and deductions therefrom during the year, and the total depreciation written off or provided up to the end of the year to be stated.
|(c)||Where the original cost aforesaid and additions and deductions thereto, relate to any fixed asset which has been acquired from a country outside India, and in consequence of a change in the rate of exchange at any time after the acquisition of such asset, there has been an increase or reduction in the liability of the company, as expressed in Indian currency, for making payment towards the whole or a part of the cost of the asset or for repayment of the whole or a part of moneys borrowed by the company from any person, directly or indirectly, in any foreign currency specifically for the purpose of acquiring the assets (being in either case the liability existing immediately before the date on which the change in the rate of exchange takes effect), the amount by which the liability is so increased or reduced during the year, shall be added to, or, as the case may be, deducted from the cost, and the amount arrived at after such addition or deduction shall be taken to be the cost of the fixed asset.
Explanation 1This paragraph shall apply in relation to all balance-sheets that may be made out as at the 6th day of June, 1966, or any day thereafter and where, at the date of issue of the notification of the Government of India, in the Ministry of Industrial Development and Company Affairs (Department of Company Affairs), G.S.R. No. 129, dated the 3rd day of January, 1968, any balance sheet, in relation, to which this paragraph applies, has already been made out and laid before the company in Annual General Meeting, the adjustment referred to in this paragraph may be made in the first balance-sheet made out after the issue of the said notification.
Explanation 2In this paragraph, unless the context otherwise requires, the expressions "rate of exchange ", "foreign currency", and "Indian currency", shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them under Sec 43A (12) of the Income-tax Act, 1961 and Explanation 2 and Explanation 3 of Sec 43A(1) shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to the said paragraph as they apply to Sec 43A(1).
[In every case where the original cost cannot be ascertained, without unreasonable expense or delay, the valuation shown by the books shall be given. For the purposes of this paragraph, such valuation shall be the net amount at which an asset stood in the company’s books at the commencement of this Act after deduction of the amounts previously provided or written off for depreciation or diminution in value, and where any such asset is sold, the amount of sale proceeds shall be shown as deduction.]
|(d)||Where sums have been written off on a reduction of capital or a revaluation of assets, every balance sheet, (after the first balance sheet) subsequent to the reduction or revaluation shall show the reduced figures and with the date of the reduction in place of the original cost.
Each balance sheet for the first five years subsequent to the date of the reduction, shall show also the amount of the reduction made.
Similarly, where sums have been added by writing up the assets, every balance-sheet subsequent to such writing up shall show the increased figures with the date of the increase in place of the original cost. Each balance sheet for the first five years subsequent to the date of writing up shall also show the amount of increase made.
Explanation.-Nothing contained in the preceding two paragraphs shall apply to any adjustment made in accordance with the second paragraph.
|(e)||Aggregate amount of company's quoted investment and also the market value thereof shall be shown.|
|(f)||Aggregate amount of company's unquoted investments shall also be shown.|
|(g)||All unutilised monies out of the issue must be separately disclosed in the balance sheet of the company indicating the form in which such unutilised funds have been invested.|
|(h)||showing separately shares fully paid-up and partly paid-up and also distinguishing the different classes of shares and showing also in similar details investments in shares, debentures or bonds of subsidiary companies.|
» Stock - Work-in-Progress
|(i)||Mode of valuation of stock shall be stated and the amount in respect of raw material shall also be stated separately where practicable.|
|(j)||Mode of valuation of works-in-progress shall be stated.|
» Sundry Debtors - Loans and Advances
|(k)||In regard to sundry debtors particulars to be given separately of -(a) debts considered good and in respect of which the company is fully secured; and (b) debts considered good for which the company holds no security other than the debtor's personal security; and (c) debts considered doubtful or bad.
Debts due by directors or other officers of the company or any of them either severally or jointly with any other person or debts due by firms or private companies respectively in which any director is a partner or a director or a member to be separately stated.
Debts due from other companies under the same management within the meaning of sub-section (1B) of section 370, to be disclosed with the names of the companies.
The maximum amount due by directors or other officers of the company at any time during the year to be shown by way of a note.
The provisions to be shown under this head should not exceed the amount of debts stated to be considered doubtful or bad and any surplus of such provision, if already created, should be shown at every closing under "Reserves and Surplus" (in the Liabilities side) under a separate sub-head "Reserve for Doubtful or Bad Debts".
» Bank Balances
|(l)||In regard to bank balances, particulars to be given separately of-
|(m)||All unutilised monies out of the issue must be separately disclosed in the Balance Sheet of the company indicating the form in which such unutilised funds have been invested.|
» Profit and Loss Account
|(n)||Show here the debit balance of profit and loss account carried forward after deduction of the uncommitted reserves, if any.|
G » General instructions for preparation of balance sheet Show/Hide
|(a)||The information required to be given under any of the items or sub-items in this Form, if it cannot be conveniently included in the balance sheet itself, shall be furnished in a separate Schedule or Schedules to be annexed to and to form part of the balance sheet. This is recommended when items are numerous.|
|(b)||Naye Paise can also be given in addition to Rupees, if desired.|
|(c)||In the case of [subsidiary companies] the number of shares held by the holding company as well as by the ultimate holding company and its subsidiaries must be separately stated. The auditor is not required to certify the correctness of such shareholdings as certified by the management.
(cc) The item "Share Premium Account" shall include details of its utilisation in the manner provided in section 78 in the year of utilisation.
|(d)||Short-term loans will include those which are due for not more than one year as at the date of the balance sheet.|
|(e)||Depreciation written off or provided shall be allocated under the different asset heads and deducted in arriving at the value of fixed assets.|
|(f)||Dividends declared by subsidiary companies after the date of the balance sheet "[should] not be included unless they are in respect of period which closed on or before the date of the balance sheet.|
|(g)||Any reference to benefits expected from contracts to the extent not executed shall not be made in the balance sheet but shall be made in the Board's report.|
|(h)||The debit balance in the Profit and Loss Account shall be shown as a deduction from the uncommitted reserves, if any.|
|(i)||As regards Loans and Advances, the amounts due from other companies under the same management within the meaning of Sec 370 (1B) should also be given with the names of the companies, the maximum amount due from every one of these at any time during the year must be shown.|
|(j)||Particulars of any redeemed debentures which the company has power to issue should be given.|
|(k)||Where any of the company's debentures are held by a nominee or a trustee for the company, the nominal amount of the debentures and the amount at which they are stated in the books of the company shall be stated.|
|(l)||A statement of investments (whether shown under "Investment" or under "Current Assets" as stock-in-trade) separately classifying trade investments and other investments should be annexed to the balance sheet, showing the names of the bodies corporate (indicating separately the names of the bodies corporate under the same management) in whose shares or debentures, investments have been made (including all investments, whether existing or not, made subsequent to the date as at which the previous balance sheet was made out) and the nature and extent of the investment so made in each such body corporate; provided that in the case of an investment company, that is to say, a company whose principal business is the acquisition of shares, stock, debentures or other securities, it shall be sufficient if the statement shows only the investments existing on the date as at which the balance sheet has been made out. In regard to the investments in the capital of partnership firms, the names of the firms (with the names of all their partners, total capital and the shares of each partner), shall be given in the statement.]|
|(m)||If, in the opinion of the Board, any of the current assets, loans and advances have not value on realisation in the ordinary course of business at least equal to the amount at which they are stated, the fact that the Board is of that opinion shall be stated.|
|(n)||Except in the case of the first balance sheet laid before the company after the commencement of the Act, the corresponding amounts for the immediately preceding financial year for all items shown in the balance sheet shall be also given in the balance sheet. The requirement in this behalf shall, in the case of companies preparing quarterly or half-yearly accounts, etc., relate to the balance sheet for the corresponding date in the previous year.|
|(o)||The amounts to be shown under Sundry Debtors shall include the amounts due in respect of goods sold or services rendered or in respect of other contractual obligations but shall not include the amounts which are in the nature of loans or advances.|
|(p)||Current accounts with directors and manager, whether they are in credit, or debit, shall be shown separately.|
|(q)||A small scale industrial undertaking has the same meaning as assigned to it under Sec 3 (j) of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951|
Statutory Vertical Form of Balance Sheet
Indian Companies Act, 1956. Schedule VI PART I
|Balance Sheet of M/s Free Flow Fluids as on 30th June 2007|
|Figures as at the end of|
I. SOURCE OF FUNDS
(1) Shareholders' funds :
(a) Capital(2) Loan funds
(b) Reserves and surplus
(a) Secured loans
(b) Unsecured loans
II. APPLICATION OF FUNDS
(1) Fixed assets :
(a) Gross; block(2) Investments
(b) Less : Depreciation
(c) Net block
(d) Capital work-in-progress
(3) Current assets, loans and advances :
(b) Sundry debtors
(c) Cash and bank balances
(d) Other current assets
(e) Loans and advances
Less : Current liabilities and provisions:
(a) Miscellaneous expenditure to the extent
not written off or adjusted
(b) Profit and loss account
|1.||Details under each of the above items shall be given in separate Schedules. The Schedules shall incorporate all the information required to be given under A-Horizontal Form read with notes containing general instructions for preparation of balance sheet.|
|2.||The Schedules, referred to above, accounting policies and explanatory notes that may be attached shall form an integral part of the balance sheet.|
|3.||The figures in the balance sheet may be rounded off to the nearest '000' or '00' as may be convenient or may be expressed in terms of decimals of thousands.|
|4.||A footnote to the balance sheet may be added to show separately contingent liabilities.]|
Are the Statutory Formats useful?
All the benefits derived by marshalling of assets and liabilities are derived by following the statutory format.
The presentation of the information relating to the previous period and the current period side by side would also enable the organisation to have a comparative overview of each of the items within the Balance Sheet.
• information not obtainable
Though a better understanding (or derivation of information) is possible by marshalling of assets and liabilities or by following the statutory formats, there is a lot of other information that is needed by the organisation that is not obtained ready hand from the Balance Sheets.
Total value of the fixed assets, funds relating/belonging to the ownership, long term loans etc., employed in the business are some of the examples of such information. Such information to an extent is obtainable from the Vertical Format of balance Sheet.
• Solution !!
To enable derivation of such additional information, the information in the balance sheet is redrawn into a statement which is termed "Balance Sheet in a Form Suitable for Financial Analysis".
We would see if that statement provides all the information that is derived in Funds Flow analysis.
|Author Credit : The Edifier||... Continued Page 2|